BTB Stock Income Tax Updates

Final Regs Issued on Crypto Reporting

The U.S. Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service today issued final regulations requiring custodial brokers to report sales and exchanges of digital assets, including cryptocurrency. These reporting requirements will help taxpayers to file accurate tax returns with respect to digital asset transactions, which are already subject to tax under current law.

These final regulations reflect consideration of more than 44,000 public comments received last fall on the proposed regulations. They require brokers to report certain sale and exchange transactions that take place beginning in calendar year 2025 and will be reported on the soon-to-be released Form 1099-DA. The regulations implement reporting requirements by the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, enacted in 2021.

The final regulations require reporting by brokers who take possession of the digital assets being sold by their customers. These brokers include operators of custodial digital asset trading platforms, certain digital asset hosted wallet providers, digital asset kiosks, and certain processors of digital asset payments (PDAPs). The majority of digital asset transactions today occur using these brokers. By focusing first on this group, the IRS intends these regulations to cover the greatest number of taxpayers while allowing the IRS and U.S. Treasury Department more time to consider the nuances of transactions involving non-custodial and decentralized brokers.

The final regulations do not include reporting requirements for brokers that do not take possession of the digital assets being sold or exchanged. These brokers are commonly called decentralized or non-custodial brokers. The U.S. Treasury Department and the IRS intend to provide rules for these brokers in a different set of final regulations.

In addition to the broker reporting rules, the regulations provide rules for taxpayers to determine their basis, gain, and loss from digital asset transactions. The regulations also provide backup withholding rules.

Real estate professionals are also required to report the fair market value of digital assets paid by buyers and received by sellers in real estate transactions with closing dates on or after January 1, 2026.

The final regulations provide for an optional, aggregate reporting method for certain sales of stablecoins and certain non-fungible tokens (NFTs) applicable only after sales of these stablecoins and NFTs exceed de minimis thresholds. For PDAP transactions, the regulations require reporting on a transactional basis only if the customer’s sales are above a de minimis threshold.

Finally, basis reporting will be required by certain brokers, for transactions occurring on or after January 1, 2026.

Additional guidance to provide transitional relief regarding digital asset transactions includes:

Transitional relief

Notice 2024-56 provides general transitional relief from reporting penalties and backup withholding for any broker who does not timely and accurately file information returns and furnish payee statements for sales and exchanges of digital assets during calendar year 2025, provided that the broker makes a good faith effort to comply with the reporting obligations. Additionally, the notice provides more limited relief from backup withholding for certain sales of digital assets during 2026 for brokers using the IRS’s TIN-matching system in place of certified TINs. Finally, the Notice also provides backup withholding relief for exchanges of digital assets in return for specified NFTs and real property and for certain sales effected by PDAPs.

Delay on information reporting for certain transactions until future guidance is issued

Notice 2024-57 informs brokers that until the U.S. Treasury Department and the IRS issue further guidance, brokers will not have to file information returns or furnish payee statements on digital asset sales and exchanges for the following six types of transactions:

  1. Wrapping and unwrapping transactions,
  2. Liquidity provider transactions,
  3. Staking transactions,
  4. Transactions described by digital asset market participants as lending of digital assets,
  5. Transactions described by digital asset market participants as short sales of digital assets, and
  6. Notional principal contract transactions.

Transition from universal or multi-wallet approach to allocating basis in digital assets to wallet by wallet or account by account approach. Revenue Procedure 2024-28 generally permits taxpayers to rely on any reasonable allocation of units of unused basis to wallets or accounts that hold the same number of remaining digital asset units based on the taxpayers’ records of unused bases and remaining units in those wallets or accounts.

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